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哈佛大学发表研究:女大学生的数量正迅
时间:2017-03-24    来源:百校出国网    责任编辑:内容总编
 

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哈佛大学有三位经济学家做过一个很有意思的普查分析报告,他们发现女性本科生的数量简直就像一支超级潜力股,正以一种看似缓慢却稳如磐石的连年看涨。

 

在美国全国范围内,女性大学生的数量在2010年首次破了全国本科生数量的50%,然后在接下来的几年里持续增长,丝毫没有停滞不前的迹象。

 

 

 

 

 

经济学教授Claudia Goldin,Lawrence F. Katz和Dunster House和导师Ilyana Kuziemko写道,女性在全国本科生人数中的占比,从1960年的39%,已经涨到了现在的57%。而这个比例,显然没有停下来的趋势。

 

美国国家经济研究局(NBER)在线发表了题为“美国大学女性的回归:大学性别差距的逆转”的研究,并研究了女性现在占全国大学生多数的原因。

 

根据文章来看,大学性别差距的逆转是由于“男性和女性之间的行为和发展差异的持续性”。

 

什么意思呢?就是说随着年龄的增长,男生和女生会由于思维上的差异导致行为和选择上出现很大的不同,最终造成发展方向和道路出现偏差。

 

其实想想看,这种现象在中国也是同样的趋势,随着人们经济水平的提升,许多家庭的资源已经不像过去那样只够供养一个孩子,女孩子得到的学习资源和机会越来越多,自然就更加珍惜这种对于过去的她们相对难得的东西,再加上孩子们的智商不论男女其实没有太大的差别,而女孩们大多谨慎认真、在学习的时候也更容易接受那些枯燥乏味的课程安排,在升学上自然占了更多的优势。

 

回到美国的话题上,如今,这种男女性别比例差距趋势已经扩大到了更多的大学,比如教堂山的北卡罗来纳大学,女性占2009级学生总数的58%。即使在哈佛,到2010年,女性的学生人数就第一次超过了男性的入学人数。

 

2010年本科入学者的性别比例分布人数,有51.8%的女性,这个数据要高于2009年的49.5%,同时正式超越了男生。本科生团体作为一个整体均匀的分布在男性和女性之间。

 

哈佛大学的性别差距要比哈佛研究中心提出的国家统计数据低,戈尔丁说:因为在大学入学是在不分性别的基础上,越有选择性的大学,女生人数:男生人数的比例越低。女生人数:男生人数的比例低其主要原因在于社会经济地位越低的家庭更愿意供男孩读大学,而富裕家庭因为家庭持有的资源可以供足够多的孩子接受教育,女性不用被迫为男性让步,所以教出来的大学生男女比例相对均衡。

 

卡兹说,由于哈佛倾向于从社会经济地位比较高的家庭和高中成绩特别好的学生中招生,所以即使采用性别盲选的招生政策,哈佛的男女失衡比例也远远低于其他典型精英学校。

 

虽然哈佛还未出现女生渐渐比男生多的性别差趋势,但是根据Kuziemko的说法,一般来说,出现这种差距趋势并不奇怪。

 

在过去的20 - 30年,随着女性的解放和社会地位的提高,典型的高中女生相对于典型的高中男生,考试成绩有了明显的提高;而社会上妇女劳动力参与率的提高以及第一次结婚妇女的平均年龄的增加更是让更多女性有了上大学的条件和必要性,所以女性在本科生中的比例就越来越高。

 

是金子总是会有发光的时候的,女性确实曾经弱势,但随着时间的流逝,社会的进步,人类观念的进化,该是你的就是你的,有能力的人总会一点点拿到本应该属于自己的东西。

 

 

The Harvard Crimson

 

Study: Women Outnumber Male Undergrads

 

Female undergraduates outnumber male undergraduates nationally, a trend that Harvard has been slow to mirror, according to a study published this month by three Harvard economists.

 

Lee Professor of Economics Claudia Goldin, Allison Professor of Economics Lawrence F. Katz, and Dunster House resident tutor Ilyana Kuziemko, who wrote the study, said women now make up 57 percent of the national undergraduate population, compared to 39 percent in 1960.

 

The study, titled "The Homecoming of American College Women: The Reversal of the College Gender Gap," was published online by the National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER) and examines the reasons why females now constitute a majority of undergraduate students across the nation.

 

According to the paper, the reversal of the college gender gap is due to "the persistence of behavioral and developmental differences between males and females."

 

The gender gap started growing at liberal arts colleges in the 1990s. Experts say that men preferred larger colleges or engineering and business programs not available at liberal arts colleges, according to insidehighered.com, an online education journal.

 

More recently though, the gender gap has spread to larger universities, such as the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill where females comprise 58 percent of the class of 2009. Even at Harvard, females overtook males for the first time in the number of admitted students to the Class of 2010, according to IvySuccess.com.

 

For the class of 2010, 51.8 percent of admitted applicants were females, up from 49.5 percent in 2009. The undergraduate student body as a whole has an even distribution between males and females.

 

The gender gap at Harvard trails the national statistics presented in the Harvard study because "the more selective the college, the lower will be the ratio of females to males even if admissions were on a gender-blind basis," said Goldin. The reason for this is that the most dominant female-to-male ratios occur among lower socioeconomic status families, while the ratio among wealthier families is more balanced.

 

Katz said that "since Harvard tends to draw from the higher part of the [socioeconomic status] and high school performance distribution [this] would mean even with gender-blind admissions policies that Harvard would tend to have a lower female share than a typical elite school."

 

While a large gender gap has not yet arrived at Harvard, it is not a surprise that the gap has developed in general, according to Kuziemko.

 

"In the past 20-30 years, the typical high school girl has significantly raised her test scores, grades, and the difficulty of her classes relative to the typical high school boy," she said.

 

The NBER paper also attributes the rise in female undergraduate participation to the rise in women's labor force participation and the increase in the average age for women getting married for the first time.

 

 

 

 


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